How To Achieve Efficient Utilization Of Biomass Energy?
When it comes to renewable energy, people always think of solar energy and wind energy first. In fact, as a new force in renewable energy, biomass energy is low-carbon and environmentally friendly, which can greatly change the current status of energy use.
It has been found that the product of photosynthesis - carbohydrates account for up to 40% of oxygen, so the natural energy of carbohydrates has a low energy density, and the net heat efficiency (LHV) is only about 16%. Therefore, when it comes to efficient utilization of biomass resources, the following two issues must be given priority:
- Biomass resources should be transformed into higher energy density, convenient to carry and transport.
- In the conversion of biomass state, the steps of transformation and loss should be minimized.
Feasible Ways for High-value Utilization of Biomass Energy
At present, there are 6 major technologies for the development and utilization of biomass resources: direct combustion, anaerobic digestion (biogas), sugar fermentation (bioethanol production), oil extraction and biodiesel, pyrolysis (bio-oil), and gasification (producing syngas). At present, there are three feasible ways to develop and utilize biomass energy with high value.
1.Methane is produced by biogas fermentation
This is essentially the material metabolism and energy conversion process of microorganisms. In the process of decomposition and metabolism, biogas microbes obtain energy and materials to meet their own growth and reproduction, and most of them are converted to methane and carbon dioxide.
2.Biomass power generation
Biomass power generation refers to the use of biomass as raw material instead of coal, and after combustion, the steam turbine unit of a thermal power plant is propelled to generate electricity. There are three main sources of raw materials for biomass power generation:
- Biomass (such as straw, waste resources) burning like firewood or use biomass pellet making machines, such as biomass pellet mill, to be compressed into convenient storage and transport of biomass pellet fuel.
- Bio-oil produced by pyrolysis of biomass.
- The syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from biomass "gasification" can be burned to power turbines.
3. Low cost production of cellulosic ethanol
Ethanol remains one of the top choices for biofuels for decades to come, until efficient alternative chemicals are found. Any attempt to abandon ethanol as a liquid fuel in the current situation is naive, or at least unrealistic.
What Problems Should be Solved for the High Value Utilization of Biomass Energy
The first problem we need to solve is the control of energy conversion efficiency. The form and use of any energy need to be changed from one form to another, and part of the energy is lost in the transformation process. Therefore, one of the problems to be solved in the efficient utilization of biomass energy is conversion efficiency. Biomass can be converted to energy, and also can be converted to chemicals. And the core of the transformation is the catalyst. Catalyst is the key to saving energy, reducing consumption and improving efficiency.
The exploitation and utilization of biomass energy is a new research field of interdisciplinary and fusion. Biomass energy industry has the characteristics of intensive technology, capital, labor, wide industrial chain and strong driving force. It is inevitable to rise worldwide.